Please compose your essay according to the specifications given and save it as a Word document on your computer. Adhere to standards of appropriate college composition guidelines, following the formatting in the Student Sample Essay included with the instructions for this assignment. Attach your saved Word Document file to this site so it may be checked for plagiarism violations through the VeriCite checking system. If you attached a document with a file extension that is NOT compatible with Word, it will not be graded. We are studying about the Founding of the United States in this 2nd Grading Period. You are required to select subjects from chapters 6-9. Compose a minimum 750-word essay identifying 3 historical themes (refer to my LIST OF THEMES) of your choosing and summarize any subjects from the histories we have studied this grading period through the “lens” of the themes. YOU MAY NOT reuse a theme that you used earlier. Each theme paragraph must be a minimum of 250 words. REGARDING YOUR SOURCES FOR THESE ESSAYS. You are required to quote your textbook twice AND ONE OTHER outside scholarly secondary source once in each Essay Assignment to support your analysis. You are also required to quote THREE different primary documents of your choosing from outside sources to support your content as well. Each theme paragraph of the essay must use one secondary source and one primary source properly contextualized to support your arguments. THESE SOURCES MUST ALL BE PROPERLY QUOTED, CITED, AND VETTED IN YOUR ESSAY. HOW TO FIND PRIMARY DOCUMENTS ONLINE – Refer to the Instructions section on How to Find Primary Documents online. Reviewing the assigned PowerPoint “Vetting Your Sources” will help you find appropriate documents. PLEASE cite these sources according to my instructions. You must also give me a properly formatted Works Cited. Themes in history: -. Causes and Effects in History ~ “what came first, the chicken or the egg?” This historical theme is the very core of understanding the course of human events. Historical events do not occur in a vacuum ~ one event leads to another, which leads to another and in this manner we see how humans act, and mostly, react, to the stimulus of their times. Did the invention of the moveable type printing press in 15th century Europe cause a great surge in literacy OR did a desire to become more literate have the effect of finding faster ways to spread the written word? The argument is yours to make. -GREED & POWER ~ Who has it? How do they get it? What do they do with it? Why do we care? Is there anyone ever born in the history of the world who is NOT greedy, at least a little bit? Hunger makes us greedy for food. Poverty makes us greedy for riches. I work to make money so I can afford the things in life I need and enjoy. You all are furthering your education to do that same thing. But when the normal human level of greed multiplies like cancer and produces a lust for power, the very worst in human behaviour occurs. Genghis Khan is a good example = through ruthless behaviour, he united all the tribes of the steppes and built the largest land empire the world has ever known – but he lusted after China with its rich rice paddies and advances in culture and wealth. He fought his way up from poverty and tribal slavery to being recognized as the punishing flail of God, but he was forever irked that he could not conquer China after many attempts. It would be his grandson, Kublai Khan that succeeded where Genghis did not. -Gender and History ~ “The hand that rocks the cradle, rules the world” ~ oh, really? The role of women is the history of the world is filled with tragedy, abuse, exploitation, and ignorance. Women went from being equals with men in Paleolithic societies and innovators of the Agricultural Revolution to being bought and sold like pack animals. But women became very adept at learning how to manipulate situations in their favour, or at least the men in those situations, when necessary. Whether driven by mere survival instincts or motivated by higher yearnings, women of influence, power and action were an aberration in history. Joan of Arc was a simple, possibly delusional French country maiden who convinced armies of men that God had sent her to lead the French in conquest against the British – and indeed she did. SAMPLE ESSAY – FOR EXAMPLE PURPOSES ONLY (this is from a World History class and NOT meant for you to copy) Jane Doe Modern World History HIST 101 (provide proper course title for our class) Theme #2: The Big “C”s ~ Conquest, Commerce, Colonization, & Conversion on the Course of History People, their cultures, and ideas have–and continue to–spread across the world in many different ways. The discovery of new land in the late 1400s motivated people to explore and colonize in the new territory. Christopher Columbus’s discovery of the “New World” led to the colonization of Europeans across the Atlantic. Spaniards were among the first of the European nations to colonize in the “New World” and bring along their culture and ideas. Instead of accepting the natives’ culture and living in peace when they arrived, the Spaniards saw a clear opportunity to conquer the Aztec people and convert them to Christianity. The Conquistadors almost killed off the majority of the Aztec population simply because the natives refused To give up their own culture and convert to Christianity and because the Spaniards wanted gold and silver. Historians and university professors from Pennsylvania State University, William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel noted in their 2016 edition of their World History textbook that “tensions soon erupted between the Spaniards and the Aztecs, provoked in part by demands by Cortés that the Aztecs renounce their native beliefs and accept Christianity” (Duiker & Spielvogel, 398 [pg number when using hard copy]). The Spaniards also exploited the resources and land of the Aztec people in order to bring profit to Spain. Conquistadors would steal gold and silver to bring back to Spain and they also imported and exported raw materials such as tobacco and sugar for economic profit. The colonization of European countries to the “New World” proved to be tragic for many native groups, but beneficial to the economies of the European nations. While the Spaniards gained riches by conquering the Aztecs, the Aztecs lost many of their people and part of their culture. There are many different cultures and ideologies which make the world interesting. Unfortunately when people are not open-minded differences in cultures and opinions can lead to disaster like in the case of the Spaniards and the Aztecs. Bartolome de las Casas, a Spanish Dominican Friar who became an advocate for the abused and conquered natives in the New World, reported to the King of Spain with a missive in 1542 that “the extent of the injustices suffered by these innocent peoples and the way in which they are being destroyed and crushed underfoot, unjustly and for no other reason than to satisfy the greed and ambition of those whose purpose it is to commit such wicked atrocities” (Bartolome de las Casas, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, 1542, pg. 7). His reporting of the injustices suffered by the Aztecs at the hand of Spanish Conquistadors ultimately influenced the creation of more humane policies of Spanish administration in its New World colonies. 400 words. Theme #15. The Power of Personality ~ Celebrities who change history A single person has the ability to change history for better or for worse. Martin Luther was able to change history by exposing the corruption of the Catholic Church. Luther was an Augustinian monk in the Catholic Church and he lectured people about the Bible and interpreted it in his own way. Martin Luther noticed that the Catholic Church was selling indulgences which angered him because the church was exploiting its followers for profits. This led Martin Luther to post his “Ninety-Five Theses” in 1517 which would expose the wrongdoings of the church. The “Ninety-Five Theses” was soon printed and published across Europe. “The Pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any penalties beyond those he has imposed either at his own discretion or by canon law” (Martin Luther, “Ninety-Five Theses”). The pope does not have authority to create any new penalties or mandates, which were not listed in the Bible, for the benefit of the Church. By exposing the corruption within the church, Luther was able to enlighten common people. His goal was to give followers direct access to the Bible so they could read it and interpret it in their own manner. Martin Luther defied the Catholic Church and by doing so he changed the course of history. By the power of his own convictions, he challenged Church doctrines and set the stage for the great Reformation, in which Luther’s religious philosophies “that humans are saved not through their good works but through faith in the promises of God” caused a schism in Western religion and became the “primary doctrine of the Protestant Reformation” (Duiker & Spielvogel, 15-1b [chap & sections when using Ebook]). 285 words. Theme #13. WAR ~ “What was it good for?” While there are many downsides to war, death being obvious, history has proven that some good has come out of the war. The Civil Wars in England (1642-1651) between parliamentary forces and royalists follows this theme. A stronger Parliament was established as a result of these conflicts over the form that the English government should take. Although control of England was eventually handed to a new monarchy during the Glorious Revolution of 1688, a “Bill of Rights” was written by the House of Commons in 1689 giving rights to both the Parliament and the citizens it represented. According to the editors of the Britannica Encyclopedia in their entry posted in their Online database in July 1998, “A number of clauses sought to eliminate royal interference in parliamentary matters, stressing that elections must be free and that members must have complete freedom of speech” (“Bill of Rights – British History,” Encyclopedia Britannica.) The original scroll of the “Bill of Rights”, which is 7 to 8 feet long and housed in the Parliamentary Archives of the UK, set the course for Parliament to be the true authority of England over the next century. This was beneficial to the citizens of England because they could be politically active in their government. The opening text of the English “Bill of Rights” states its intent “for the choosing of such persons to represent them, as were of right to be sent to parliament, to meet and sit at Westminster upon the two and twentieth day of January, in this year 1689, in order to such an establishment as that their religion, laws, and liberties might not again be in danger of being subverted” (“The Bill of Rights,” 1689). Even though the English Civil War witnessed the first beheading of an unpopular European monarch, Charles I, in 1649, the establishment of a Constitutional Monarchy that eventually evolved out of the chaos would lay the foundation for the American Democracy. 320 words. 1000 words Work Cited Primary Sources: De las Casas, Bartolome. “A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, 1542.” In A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies by Bartolome de las Casas. Translated by Nigel Griffin. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1992. Luther, Martin. “Ninety-Five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences, 1517. ” In Martin Luther. Edited by E. G. Rupp and Benjamin Drewery. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1970. “The Bill of Rights” by English Parliament, January 1689. In The Statutes: Revised Edition (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1871), Vol. 2, pp. 10–12. Secondary Sources: Duiker, William J. and Jackson Spielvogel. World History, Vol. II Since 1500. 8th Edition. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2016. Cengage Mindtap. Web. 12 September 2015. Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. “Bill of Rights.” Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Published 3 June 2016. Accessed 9 January 2017. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Bill-of-Rights-British-history
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